Since writing began to be used as a means of disseminating information, human beings have left information and relevant data captured in different types of text that have lasted until today. In this sense, linguistics is responsible for organizing the different types of texts according to their nature, in order to distinguish which are the characteristics that must be considered when writing or analyzing a text in question.
Just like the variations in the oral tradition, the written language has also undergone a series of modifications according to its use, which we will detail in the following lines to talk about what the different types of texts are like.
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In general, the classification that has been used the most when it comes to separating the different types of texts and that is most agreed upon is the following: 1. Narrative text
It is probably one of the types of texts that we have read the most. It is a narration of facts, real or fictitious, that start from a situation and evolve until ending in an ending that has nothing to do with the starting point.
For this reason, it is very important to consider the structure that narrative texts must follow, since they must contain at least one element that gives suspense to the actions that take place. Thus, this type of text is organized as follows: 1. Approach
Neither more nor less than the beginning by which the narrative text begins. It is necessary to present the characters in a certain space and time , in addition to adding information from the context that helps the reader to situate himself. 2. Knot
The core of this type of text, towards where the story progresses, based on posing a series of problems that are presented to the characters and that they must solve. In this way, the knot is intended to give suspense to what we read. 3. Denouement
The consequence towards which the story progresses and in which, initially, all the complications that have been appearing in the central part and that make up the body of the narrative should be resolved.
As we said before, the end will have meant a change in the way of being of the characters, which in general, and if they are well developed, will also have evolved with respect to the first pages.
Although these are the three main sections into which the types of narrative texts are divided, some experts suggest adding two more: 4. Final situation
After the outcome, we are presented with a new situation in the lives of the protagonists , once they have solved all your problems. 5. Reactions to the situation
These are the assessments that both the narrator and the main cast emit as the plot unfolds.
Within this type of narrative texts, several literary genres are also included, each with its own particular style. However, similar patterns are followed, since they present a computation of the facts ordered in time , in addition to the type of sentences, verbs, adverbs or tense (generally the preterite perfect, but also other forms in the past) that are used.
They are part of the narrative texts:
- Soap operas
- Movies (for the script)
2. Descriptive text
Another of the types of texts in common use are the descriptive ones. The main goal of these writings is the definition of something, for example: an object, a person, a situation or any event. To do this, adjectives, adverbs and nouns are used to help create a mental image of what is being spoken to us.
The description responds to a need to make known in depth that ‘something’ that is spoken of , from a superficial level of analysis to a more complex one. Precisely for this reason, describing is a widely used resource in all types of texts and genres, since we can find them present in disciplines of opposite fields, such as law, literature, advertising and even history.
Likewise, the point of view from which the narrator presents the description can also vary. In this way, we will talk about:
- Subjective description: when it is done from a personal point of view, highlighting the sensations that what is described awakens in whoever tells the story.
- Objective description: when talking about what is seen with the naked eye, without emphasizing other features that are unknown to the naked eye or including personal assessments; filming the purest pragmatism.
On the other hand, and according to the element described, we can distinguish between: 1. Prosopography
Description of the physical features of a character . 2. Topography
This is the description of enclaves and landscapes . 3. Chronography
Description of the time in which what we read is located . 4. Etopeya
This descriptive resource allows to analyze the character, ethics and habits of a character . 5. Prosopopeia
It consists of describing a fantastic being to which qualities similar to those of other beings are attributed that do exist. 6. Portrait
Onecomplete description of a character , where their traits are disclosed, both physical and psychological. 7. Hypotyposis
Also called ‘frame’, it is a complete description of a character or something, highlighting the circumstances that have led to it, how the facts are and how they affect the characters. 3. Argumentative text
Not all types of texts have an aesthetic purpose. Some also seek to generate an idea in the reader about what the author thinks , stating reasons to accept or refute the premises to be discussed.
In order to achieve this, in the argumentative texts, the reasons that reinforce the idea that is sought to be instilled are exposed., so that they are organized following a scheme in which the data that, throughout the text, will lead us to reach a conclusion are presented.
In an illustrative way, the sequence of an argumentative text is structured on the basis of three propositions: 1. Premises
Any information that will work as a reinforcement of the opinion that the author of the text maintains. 2. Inferences
Those deductions that lead to support an idea . 3. Conclusion
The resolution reached after all the analysis carried out throughout this type of text. 4. Counterargumentation
A section can also be included in whichthe weaknesses and weak points of the given arguments are criticized, with the aim of improving them for the future.
As examples of writings where one must argue, we find:
- research articles
- Opinion articles
- Motivational letter
- advertising letters
- Sentences or demands (legal scope)
4. Explanatory text
The different types of explanatory text are characterized by the desire to make something specific known, but without giving personal evaluations , only providing objective and relevant data and information for their understanding; all this in an enunciative tone and not tendentious. However, it is not uncommon to find, in the same explanatory text, descriptions and clarifications combined with aspects from the field of argumentation.
As in other types of text, explanatory texts also follow a certain organization. 1. Approach
Beginning of the explanatory text, where the issues to be addressed are set out , with implicit questions such as “how does this happen?
” or “why does this phenomenon occur in this way
”. 2. Explanation and answer
Section in which each unknown is resolved on the matter in question. 3. Conclusion
Final idea where the answer that has been given and the data that support it are evaluated.
Among the examples of explanatory texts belong to the school or university field, so we will find:
- Scientific articles
- Academic books
- specialized manuals,
- doctoral theses
In linguistics, the term ‘dialogue’ is used to refer to a type of text in which a discussion is established between two narrators with conflicting positions . For many, dialogue is a kind of speech belonging to rhetoric (the art of good speech), oral and written.
Be that as it may, this dialogue is not completely natural (as if it were a conversation between two people), but rather it has been used more as a resource to teach how to use and dominate the oral discourse of daily use.
There are different types of text according to the position that the narrator acquires.: this can refer directly to the reader or “converse” with other texts, which have their own voice. Thus, we will be facing a phenomenon called ‘exchange’, in the first case, or ‘polyphony’ if there is a greater number of participants.
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Simon Perez, JR (2006). Proposal for the determination of the types of texts. Sapiens, 7(1), 148-162.
Mendoza, N. (2007). The types of texts in Spanish: forms, technique and production.