Any self-respecting journalist must know the different journalistic genres that exist in order to deal with them properly. In these lines we will try to distinguish them and describe their main characteristics.
- Discover what are the types of texts that exist.
What are journalistic genres
Just as there are several types of texts, journalistic genres are modalities of journalistic pieces, forms of expression according to the needs of the journalist. All these types have something in common: the present , that object of study always present by the editor or journalist. A more literal definition could be the following.
“Text whose objective is to inform someone through a message. Its function is to persuade whether it is an interpretive text or an opinion text”.
In the first place, it is worth highlighting the differentiation between three large groups of genres, depending on the intention or the point of view of the person who carries out the journalistic piece.
1. Informative journalistic genres
The informative genre has the sole function of informing . Therefore, the author is not reflected in the text in any way. This first group includes the following genres.
The news is the most common genre in any media, something like the minimum unit of journalism . The wording must be clear and precise, as well as objective. However, it must also be written in a way that invites the reader to continue reading.
- Know what the parts of a news are.
1.2 Objective report
Secondly, we find the objective report. Unlike the news, the report is based on a previous investigation work and deeper and more exhaustive context. Therefore, the journalist gives greater relevance to the antecedents and the consequences , but without entering into personal evaluations.
interview The objective interview is based on questions that have nothing to do with the interests of the writer or editor, but with the interest of the public. An interview with a political leader could be the example of an objective interview, or the debate prior to an election.
text Documentary text eliminates any trace of literary embellishment in the news piece. Offersa series of objective data that serve to understand the nature of an event. Therefore, the style is usually very simple and the sentences short.
2. Interpretive journalistic
genres This is a freer genre, since it is not subject to the rules of objectivity . However, the main objective remains to inform someone. Within this group, there are three genera.
2.1 Interpretive report
We have previously pointed out that the report is a more extensive and contextualized piece than a simple piece of news. In the case of interpretive reporting, the editor or journalist adds her point of view to analyze, assess or determine the conclusions of an event.
The chronicle is theChronological narration of a certain event. Normally a chronicle is made to report on an event of special relevance or out of the ordinary, since readers want to know the information with the maximum immediacy. It is also a common genre in the sports section.
interview The interpretive interview not only reproduces the responses of the interviewee, but also analyzes and assesses these responses . It is also often called personality interview, since it tries to develop a clear profile of the psychological traits of the interviewee.
3. Journalistic genres of opinion
Here the point of view of the editor or editor is shown explicitly. You can deal with a current issue, but always from your point of view. As in the previous case, we distinguish three types.
article Opinion articles are usually written by experts in the field, although their author may be a person outside the media. Generally, the author expresses a series of arguments to persuade the reader or support her point of view.
The editorial expresses the opinion of a mediumof communication as a whole on a particular topic. In general, a medium usually has a group of journalists in charge of the editorial. Media identity or political position is also called editorial line.
The author contributes a text to a communication medium on a regular basis. The writing can be brief and deal with different topics , but always from a subjective and original point of view. It is one of the freest journalistic genres and less subject to the rules of objectivity.
Criticism is the assessment of an expert or journalist on a subject. There are many types of criticism: literary, cinematographic, musical, criticism of an event or criticism of a product that has just been released. They are normally accompanied by a final assessment and even a score.
3.5 Letter to the director
As its name indicates, it is a letter or brief writing from a reader to the director of the communication medium . It is the space for the public to offer their opinion on current issues. They provide a point of interactivity, just like forums and comments in digital media.
- Do you know the types of poems that exist
Find out here.
Ladeveze, LN, & Casasus, JM (1991). Journalistic style and genres. Ed. Ariel.
Sanchez, JF, & Lopez-Pan, F. (1998). Typologies of journalistic genres in Spain. Towards a new paradigm.