Today we get reflective in Urban Character and we are going to try to clarify doubts about a complicated but very interesting topic: Philosophical knowledge . A question that is one of the central themes of the debate in philosophy throughout history.
1. What is philosophical knowledge
2. Characteristics of philosophical knowledge
3. Types of philosophical knowledge
What is philosophical
knowledge Philosophical knowledge, also called epistemology is, broadly speaking, the discipline that is responsible for studying knowledge itself . This may sound like a mess, but it’s actually simpler than it sounds:Epistemology studies what is the best way to acquire knowledge and many more issues related to learning.
It is considered a Second Order discipline, because it depends on others (such as science) to develop, to work on it, seeing that it is more or less correct when we talk about it, or practice it in one way or another.
Philosophical knowledge is knowledge that is reached through observation, study, analysis and criticism and, through it, we will give birth to new ideas that will serve to continue building the philosophical discourse.
An example: Epistemology would say if we are getting close to something as basic as studying for an examor to more complicated questions such as how we should act if we are scientists and want to prove a theory.
Characteristics of philosophical knowledge
There are certain qualities (six, specifically) that distinguish or characterize philosophical knowledge with respect to other ways of understanding knowledge.
1. He is rational
In that he is not emotional, he is not carried away by feelings or appearances . This is because philosophical knowledge is acquired and expressed through logical procedures and the structures and concepts that make it possible come from reason.
2. It is critical. It
issues value judgments, that is, it accepts the act of giving an opinion where it does not accept the irrational.. He judges everything that he considers his object of study, he sees it with the “glasses” of logic and common sense (it should not be contradictory for example), if it does not pass the test, he questions it .
3. It is analytical
Philosophical knowledge has a lot to say, but each time it focuses on something specific. Don’t ramble. It is analytical because it is exhaustive and concrete . He takes something and subjects it to an in-depth review and study.
4. It is historical
Philosophical knowledge cannot be understood without being located in a specific historical and social moment. Philosophical knowledge is a child of its time and lives and dies with it .
5. It is totalizing
Not totalitarian. This means thatIt can relate to and encompass any other discipline , from the simplest to the most complicated.
6. It is systematic
Or it is systematized, ordered, classified. It works based on structures and categories . It is not chaotic.
There are a number of qualities that define knowledge in philosophy. | Ben White.
What are the types of philosophical knowledge
Within the totality of philosophical knowledge and all the characteristics that make it up that we have just listed, we can talk about the types of philosophical knowledge, which obviously will have, all of them, all the characteristics that support this type of knowledge.
1. Empirical philosophical
knowledge It is a knowledge thatyou learn through experience . Empirical knowledge is one of the most basic, it is with which children learn. It depends on the perception of stimuli and their repetition. Examples of this would be playing soccer, learning to speak a language or knowing how to recognize what is in our environment.
2. Philosophical knowledge itself
It is related to wisdom itself. With the need to understand the knowledge process itself and its relationship with human nature, it is perhaps the most theoretical and least practical knowledge . It does not even lend itself to debate or the materialization of an ideology such as religion. Some questions that arise are: who am I
, how is the world around me
Why do we act as we do?
3. Intuitive philosophical knowledge
Like empirical knowledge, it is basic knowledge, not useless or silly. It is learned through daily contact with the world that surrounds us and serves, let’s say, to survive and live in society . It is one of the knowledge we share with animals. For example: knowing when someone is sad or if someone poses a threat.
4. Scientific philosophical
knowledge It is the philosophical knowledge that meets the characteristics that we usually relate to science. Rigor, seriousness, objectivity or reliability are characteristics of this type of knowledge. There are thousands of examples and they are well known. Much of what we study in school: natural sciences, mathematics, physics , etc. could be examples of this type of knowledge.
5. Theological/religious philosophical knowledge
It is based on faith as something irrational , it gives you the ability to give as true, as valid, issues that cannot be verified in a material or real way. Examples would be all religious dogmas.
- Contemporary philosophy: what it is, characteristics and authors.
Van Dijk, TA (2002). Knowledge and news. Philology Quaderns. Communication Studies, 1, 249-270.
Cassirer, E., & Roces, W. (1948). The problem of knowledge. Fund of Economic Culture.
Sanguineti, J.J. (2005). Human knowledge: a philosophical perspective (Vol. 10). Word.