The human body is a set of interrelated structures and systems, which enables us to interact with the environment that surrounds us, as well as with other individuals. To understand how the different parts of the human body work, it is necessary to understand that, although each of them has its own functions, the ultimate goal is the optimal functioning of the entire living being of which they are a part.
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The 5 major parts of the human body and their 12 secondary structures
We can divide the different structures of our anatomy into five large groups, each of which also has its respective parts of the human body and their functions: Head, neck, trunk, limbs upper and lower extremities.
Starting from the top, we have the head, which is one of the most important parts of the human body, because the brain is housed inside it , which is protected by the skull bone.
In addition, four of the five sensory sensesthey have their organs and entrance routes through their heads. All of them form the ‘face’ or ‘face’, which is considered differentiated from the rest of the head, although it is in the anterior area of the skull:
Organs through which visual stimuli are perceived . They are made up of the eyelids (opening and closing of the eyes), eyelashes (protection of the interior of the eye) and eyeballs (responsible for seeing). Together they form the visual system.
Part of the human body that protrudes from the face and that captures particles suspended in the air to detect odours.
Broadly speaking, the nose is broken down into the nostrils (the two openings through which odors enter) and the septum (the cartilaginous protuberance that separates both openings and that shapes the profile of the face); and together they are the beginning of the olfactory system.
Both cartilaginous organs located on both sides of the head, which allow sound to enter the brain by bouncing sound waves . These parts of the human body are also known as ‘ear pinnae’ and are considered to be the exterior of the auditory system.
Entrance to the digestive system, through which we eat food. The mouth is equipped with multiple teeth to grind food, in addition to a tongue, a muscular organ that allows food to be tasted by secreting saliva and that also has implications in the articulation of sounds for speech; and from the throat, the tube through which ground food descends into the stomach.
Part of the human body that joins the head to the trunk. The neck is a robust area that must support the weight of the skull (and consequently, of the brain), so it must be firm. This is achieved thanks to two pairs of muscles located on both sides of the neck that allow the rotation of the head, while supporting it: the sternocleidomastoids.
The middle or central area of any body, not counting the head or limbs, is known as the ‘trunk’.
In the case of our species, the trunk is all that remains below the neck , extends to the shoulders and descends to the upper legs.
It is in the trunk where we have housed some of the most transcendental parts of the human body for our survival.
Upper area of the trunk, from the end of the neck to the abdomen . Under this area, whose exterior is the chest, are the ribs, joined by the sternum, a network of bones that protect vital organs such as the heart, lungs and esophagus, among others.
Back area of the trunk. As before, everything that descends from the neck to the lower extremities , which begin at the buttocks, is considered back.
The back covers the spine, which is the axis from which practically all the parts of the human body that we are analyzing are structured.
Lower trunk area, from the chest to the beginning of the legs . Under the muscles of the abdomen are several organs of the digestive system (stomach, liver or intestines) and some of the urinary system.
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4. Upper extremities
The bipedal position that our species adopted millions of years ago represented an evolutionary leap that meant that the upper extremities, which originally served as support when walking , could be used for other tasks.
Begin at the shoulders and extend to the hands . These two limbs, located on the left and right, are broken down into two structures (arm and forearm), which are articulated thanks to the elbow, which facilitates the flexion and extension of the arm.
Each of the two limbs whose function is to grasp objects. Both parts of the human body are connected to the forearms by the wrist, the joint that enables their rotation. The upper side of the hand is called the ‘back’ and the lower, more sensitive, ‘palm’.
The five in which the hand ends, articulated in three phalanges (proximal, medial or distal depending on their proximity to the rest of the body), which make it possible to grasp and touch objects : thumb, index finger, middle finger, ring finger and little finger.
The ends of the fingers are crowned, in their dorsal area, by some. These reminiscences of our animal ancestors are fibrous in appearance and form.
5. Lower extremities
From the pelvis to the feet, the lower extremities serve as ourbase on which all upper body parts are supported ; In addition to serving for displacement.
These are the lower limbs properly speaking . They are divided, from top to bottom, into the thighs, knees (the joint that, like the elbows with the arms, facilitate flexion and extension), legs (the area from the knee to the feet), and feet.
The extremities at which the legs end . They are the support on which a large part of the body weight rests, which is distributed along the entire leg and back.
As with the fingers of the hands, those of the feet, although they do not fulfill the same task, are articulated in three phalanges, although their mobility is less than that of their superior counterparts.
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