The concept of “intelligence” is something about which much has been theorized and written about in the field of psychology. If we had to highlight what is true and what is not about intelligence, we could start by saying that it is not a single and fixed trait ; since as an abstract concept that it is, it is not something real and concrete.
Intelligence is a mental aptitude that requires adaptation and understanding of the environment; It is the ability to reason and solve problems, as well as to think abstractly and be able to grasp complex ideas. In short, the ability to learn quickly from experience.
It is convenient to banish the preconceived idea that it is only about a school capacity or to pass exams and begin to assume thatit is something richer than human beings have been building culturally .
Far from making a dissertation on the different visions of authors who have written about intelligence; we will focus on that of the psychologist Howard Gardner, from Harvard University.
According to the professor, there are what he calls “multiple intelligences” , which would go to show the existence of eight different types of intelligences that suppose some abilities or others.
The 8 intelligences according to Howard Gardner
For Gardner, defining intelligence emphasizes not only being able to answer questions, but also to perform certain tasks. It is also something changing whose description will vary as the human being evolves and creates new realities.
As we discussed a little above, Howard Gardner offers a multidimensional view of intelligence, which he claims offers a much broader and fairer view of a person’s potential than other more outdated perspective explanations based on IQ scores for intelligence. determine the degree of competition.
Let us now list and explain Howard Gardner’s 8 intelligences:
The domain of spoken language is something common in all cultures and that allows us to communicate effectively with our peers. From the acquisition of speech as children, through language we can express ourselves with others. Verbal or linguistic intelligence implies both the ability to communicate orally, as well as through writing or even gestures .
Politicians, writers, poets or journalists would have a great mastery of this intelligence when writing their speeches, works, projects or articles.
People who demonstrate talent logical-mathematical intelligence are effective in the use of numbers and resolution of abstract problems; as well as in deducing logical relationships and analyzing propositions. In children it is observed how they show a predilection for mathematical problems and numerical-statistical calculations .
We would find that scientists stand out in logical-mathematical intelligence, obviously mathematicians, accountants or engineers.
Many people are born with a special sensitivity to perceive, transform and create musically. They tend to immediately grasp the rhythm, tone and timbre of a melody just by hearing it ; as well as to reproduce it on a musical instrument if they acquire practice.
Children who are attracted to music from a young age should be encouraged early on so that they can develop it as they become more familiar with the language of music.
In addition to musicians and other scholars, for Howard Gardner there are also those who show sensitivity to melodies without the need to play any instrument.
It refers to the degree of competence to understand others and interact appropriately with them according to the context in which we find ourselves and includes the ability to adjust facial expression, tone of voice, gestures and body posture; as well as to respond satisfactorily
Your favorite high school teacher, the one who managed to transmit his lessons to the students and not just throw up the syllabus in class, actors or good salespeople have highly developed interpersonal intelligence.
In the smallest it can be observed according to their degree of gregariousness , teamwork or communicating with the teacher.
Howard Gardner brings together in the same group all the capacities that allow us to configure a model adjusted to our way of being, as well as the use of it to develop efficiently in life. Capabilities such as self-discipline, self-esteem and self-understanding are developed by people with high intrapersonal intelligence; and stand out in professions such as psychology or philosophy.
The children and young people who stand out in this section tend to be more thoughtful than their colleagues, they know how to listen and often offer advice.
The handling of the body to express or support certain ideas or the facility to use the hands as instruments to transform elements is, in short, what this sixth intelligence of Gardner encompasses. We would find coordination skills, balance, strength and speed; in addition to ability to perceive shapes, sizes and volumes.
Any discipline that implies some type of corporal expression would form part of this intelligence: surgery, dance, crafts (to name a few examples).
Children with full physical abilities are good in physical education and in arts and crafts subjects or playing musical instruments.
Known as “three-dimensional thinking”, it consists of perceiving images from the outside and transforming them; or in the production and decoding of graphic information. People with good visuospatial intelligence have the ability to process information from their surroundings and to position themselves in the scene with respect to other objects.
It abounds, for example, in pilots, sculptors or engineers.
In infants it can be noted that they can read and interpret maps or plans. In addition, his study method includes outlines or summary tables, rather than texts with too much verbiage.
This is the perception and distribution of elements of the environment (animals, plants, fungi…), such as rural, suburban or urban areas. This special sensitivity for Mother Nature lies in those who observe, experience or live in this type of environment, for example country people, biologists or botanists.
It is usually seen in children who profess unconditional love towards animals or plants and who are interested in life that grows in nature.