Let’s travel more than 65 million years back in time to learn how the different types of terrestrial, flying and aquatic dinosaurs that have been discovered after a century unearthing their fossilized bones are organized and what their names are.
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Saurischians and ornithischians: the two main types of dinosaurs
Before proceeding with the categorization of the most emblematic dinosaurs of each subfamily, it is convenient that we stop to talk about the first taxon that will later allow us to organize these saurians in each suborder.
According to this, dinosaurs are divided into two large orders based on the morphology of their hips . Ornithischians, bird hip Those dinosaurs with a hip very similar to that of modern birds
are considered to be part of the ornithischians, with the pubic bones pointing backwards. However, it is a trait that indirectly relates them, since the plumiferous that coexist with us actually descend from the next great group.
The ornithischia were herbivorous dinosaurs, endowed with strong molar teeth to crush the leaves of ferns and trees. Of peaceful behavior, they used to group in herds of several members , to protect themselves from the scourge of predators. For this reason, these saurians surpassed the saurischians in proportion of species and number of specimens.
Within this great family there were quadrupedal dinosaurs of great tonnage, although species that had functional front legs were also included, which allowed them to opt for a bipedal movement.Saurischians, lizard hips The types of dinosaurs with hips most similar to those of the crawling lizards we know
have been cataloged in the saurischia suborder since, unlike the previous ones, their pubic bones pointed forward.
As we said, a part of the saurischians (the so-called “avians”) left their mark on evolution, since the birds that fly through our skies are direct relatives of this class of dinosaurs . It is important to emphasize that among the saurischians there were large and small carnivores, as well as large herbivores. 6 types of land dinosaurs and some names
Within the two great categories, the types of terrestrial dinosaurs were organized within several families, according to the physical traits shared in each one. In this way, we find: 1. Sauropods
The largest animals that have walked the planet. Belonging to the saurischians, they are the dinosaurs that are colloquially known as “long-necked” or “long-necked” , recognizable by their slender neck crowned by a tiny head. Many species (not all) had a long tail that they could use as a whip in case of being ambushed.
Sauropods gathered in herds of several members to protect themselves in case of attack. 1.1. brachiosaurus
Probably one of the most recognizable dinosaur names, thanks to its appearance in the Jurassic Park saga. This great Jurassic sauropod reached 23 meters in length and between 10 and 15 meters in height . 1.2. Apatosaurus
Another dinosaur with a long neck and colossal size. The Apatosaurus reached 25 meters, although its height was just over 5 meters, since unlike the previous one it could hardly raise its neck, so it held it parallel to the ground , aligned with its back and tail. 1.3. Diplodocus
Also called “Brontosaurus”, the Diplodocus is another of the dinosaur names that most sound to us since we were little. As a curiosity, the experts discovered that,In order to digest the leaves deposited in its stomach, the Diplodocus swallowed stones to crush them .
One variety of Diplodocus that was found, cataloged as ‘Hallorum’, measured 40 meters in length, but was commonly 25 – 27 meters long. 2. Theropods
Theropods were bipedal saurischians whose forelimbs had evolved into short claws, while that its hind legs were strong and agile to run after prey. In fact, the name of this type of terrestrial dinosaur means “three-toed foot” , in allusion to the revealing traces that revealed its rear claws, with three finger appendages and long ones.
All theropods followed a carnivorous diet, although the debate was opened that they could have resorted to carrion during prey scarcity. Hunters by nature, they were solitary dinosaurs that could cooperate in flocks of few individuals to bring down a larger dinosaur. 2.1. Tyrannosaurus – Rex
Despite its 12 or 14 meters long and almost 6 high, the T-Rex was not the largest of the supercarnivores, but it had the most powerful bite of its kind , thanks to exceptional jaw muscles . 2.2. Allosaurus
A lighter version of the Rex, but with functional claws that it used to catch. Allosaurus had an elongated neck anda distinctive bump on its snout that may have served as a lure to attract females. It measures 12 meters long and approximately 3 meters high. 23. Spinosaurus
was the largest carnivore to have walked the Earth. The Spinosaurus (15 meters long) had a huge sail on its back with which it probably displayed itself and scared the competitors. It was endowed with a long snout armed with conical teeth, attributes that paleontologists are convinced were used to catch fish.
Contrary to what we saw in Jurassic Park III, the Spino spent more time in the water than out and, when it came out, it used all four legs to walk, so it rarely stood up. 3. Thyrophores
Of the ornithischia type, within the thyreophorans there are three different types of terrestrial dinosaurs (scelidosaurs, stegosaurus and ankylosauriomorphs), all of them with their backs covered with plates. The last two of these subclasses evolved from bipedal ancestors that gradually acquired a quadrupedal stance due to the weight of their robust frame.
On the one hand, the stegosaurids were called “dinosaurs with plates” , alluding to the double row of plates that ran from the neck to the tip of the tail and that would serve to regulate body temperature, but also to display themselves before potential partners. 3.1. Stegosaurus
The most representative dinosaur of this order. As a defense, the tail of the Stegosaurus had sharp spikes with which they inflicted sometimes fatal damage to their attackers. Experts believe that it had one of the proportionally smallest brains in the animal kingdom: of the 7 meters in length it reached, the brain did not exceed the size of a walnut. The ankylosauriomorphs, on the other hand, were robust and slow, but armed to the teeth . Predators had to think very carefully when attacking one of these armored herbivores, which also had a heavy club at the end of its tail. 3.2. Ankylosaurus
This four-legged tank averages up to 10 meters in length, andhis head and back were covered with bony plates that protected him from the jaws of his hunters. 3.3. Euoplocephalus
Very similar to Ankylosaurus, but smaller (6 meters). 4. Ornithopods, ceratopsians and pachycephalosaurs
Three classes to refer to three types of dinosaurs related to each other and belonging to the ornithischians.
First of all, the smallest ornithopods were of the classes Hypsylophodontidae and Heterodontidae, thus defined according to their teeth. They were bipedal and very agile herbivores, equipped with large eyes to watch for predators lying in wait. From the smallest ornithopods, a much larger branch evolved, the Iguanodontia. These life forms were located halfway between the previous category and the next. This is the most iconic specimen: 4.1. Iguanodon
Huge quadrupedal herbivore of 10 meters that could stand on its hindquarters and whose thumbs were powerful claws with which it protected itself if attacked.
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Another variant of the ornithopods was made up of the hadrosaurs (duck-billed dinosaurs) , such as: 4.2. Parasaurolophus
10 meters long, it had a long crest towards the back that made it unmistakable. Others, such as Corythosaurus or Lambeosaurus, had their skulls decorated with crests of different shapes.
For their part, the cerapods evolved from a branch that split off from the ornithopods . Quadrupedal dinosaurs with horns on their heads and snouts, a pointed beak, and a large bone plate on the occipital area of the skull belong to this subfamily. 4.3. triceratops
With its 9 meters long and its pair of horns on the front of its head, it is the perfect example of this category. Other similar congeners were Pentaceratops, Torosaurus, or Chasmosaurus, each with a different skull plate.
Finally, the last ornithischians are the pachycephalosaurs , bipedal dinosaurs, herbivorous and with a reinforced skull in the shape of a helmet, a defensive element against any threat. 4.4. Pachycephalosaurus
8 meters long and about 3 meters high, the Pachycephalosaurus prepared itself for the attack by lowering its head and charging propelled at full speed. 4.5. Stygimoloch
The Stygimoloch is 3 meters long and only 1 meter high. His most notable feature was that his dome-shaped skull was adorned by a crown of pointed bones that he also used to impress his kind. 3 names of flying dinosaurs
Dinosaurs were also the lords and lords of the skies. 5. Pterosaurs
Although it is a mistake to speak of flying dinosaurs (the correct thing would be “flying reptiles”, although it is not true either, since they were rather planning), pterosaurs made up the great family of these species , all of them with hollow bones to be able to lift up the flight.
With membranous wings attached to the arms, when the pterosaurs were perched on the ground, they were collected and used the arms to walk. They fed on fish, although they did not refuse to rapinate . 5.1. Pteranodon
Up to 7 meters wingspan with outstretched wings, beak for fishing and an elongated crest on the back of the skull. 5.2. Dimorphodon
Small pterosaur, with a wingspan of 2 meters and a body of 1 meter. In contrast to other winged colleagues, Dimorphodon was provided with teeth . 4.3. Ornithocheirus
One of the largest flying dinosaurs that ever crossed the skies, with a wingspan of 12 meters and a body of almost 5 meters.3 names of aquatic dinosaurs
Some species of dinosaurs adapted to survive under the waters that bathed the Earth before the separation of the continents. 6. Plesiosaurs
One of the types of aquatic dinosaurs, recognizable by their long neck and small body provided with four fins to propel themselves underwater and a short tail. 6.1. Elasmosaurus
The most iconic marine dinosaur of this subfamily, measuring about 6 meters long. As a curiosity, it is said that “Nessie”, the uncertain inhabitant of Loch Ness, would be a missing link in this type of aquatic dinosaur. 7. Ichthyosaurs
Similar to the dolphins that swim in the seas today, although the relationship is not clear to many. Interestingly, these marine reptiles had to come to the surface to breathe and gave birth to their young in a viviparous way. 7.1. Ophthalmosaurus
Named for its large eyes, Ophthalmosaurus had an elongated beak for catching fish, a tail fin similar to that of sharks, and a tail with which they propelled themselves underwater. 8. Pliosaurs
The largest marine dinosaurs on record. The appearance of these water monsters was different from those we have seen, since they had a much shorter and stronger neck and imposing jaws with serrated teeth.. They fed on other dinosaurs, marine and terrestrial if they had the chance; whom they hunted when they got too close to their domains. 8.1. Liopleurodon
The terror of the seas during the Jurassic. The Liopleurodon was a predatory marine dinosaur, with a large skull compared to the rest of the body, equipped with large jaws to seize its catches, which it stalked from the dark abyss.
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