As with icebergs, of volcanoes we only see the end of a complex underground geological formation. In fact, the parts of a volcano extend far beyond a lava-spewing peak , as these rocky structures extend miles into the bowels of the Earth. Let’s learn more about the interior of these geographical wonders.
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The 9 parts of a volcano from the inside out
From the depths of the lithosphere to the outside, a volcano is made up of the following zones: 1. Magmatic chamber
It is the part of the volcano that is found in more layers inside the subsoil, even by below the earth’s crust. The thickness of the magmatic chamber can range from a few kilometers to cover several dozens of land around (some have been documented with a radius of more than 70 kilometers).
In short, the magma chamber is the place where the magma accumulates and, once it reaches enough pressure, it will be thrown outwards, since this underground chamber is not completely sealed, but rather has an opening through which the magma flows . will make way. 2. Dome
The dome is one of the parts of the volcano that is not present in all these geographical formations, since its configuration depends on the thickness of the lava that it spits. It is formed by lava that has been hardened after an eruption and that, due to its viscosity, has not been able to descend down the mountainside . In this way, it piles up and covers the edges of the crater without spreading, outlining the appearance of the mountain, which can see its height increased if the fireproof material it has spit out cools. 3. Dike
In volcanology , the internal gaps that appear as the magma makes its way to the earth’s surface are called ‘dykes’.. These parts of a volcano are created due to the pressure that is produced from the subsoil, which cracks. However, the magma does not always manage to find a way out. In case it happens, we can speak of ‘vents’, fissures through which the internal pressure exerted by the magma and toxic gases is relieved. 4. Chimney
It is the conduit that connects the volcanic chamber with the outlet through which the magma rises, accompanied by gases that will also be expelled when the volcano erupts. Sometimes, the virulence with which the volcanoes erupt is such that they also manage to drag pieces of the rocks that make up the contour of the chimney. This amount of debris flies up into the sky when the mountain roars, only to fall later in a deadly stony rain from which it is best to take shelter. 5. Eruptive fissures
The chimney is not the only part of a volcano through which magma is released. In fact, it can happen that new ways different from the main chimney are opened, through which the pressure is relievedthat this mass of molten rock and gases produce. They are known as ‘eruptive fissures’, and can appear on the surface of the cone or far from the center of the eruption, spread out for several kilometers around. 6. Cone
The cone is located on the surface of the formation. It is composed of lava that has hardened and belched volcanic rock debris accumulated over the centuries, chiseling the sides of the mountain. Depending on its diameter, it can be deduced if it is a volcano that has had a lot of activity or little . 7. Caldera
To the untrained eye it may seem that it is the same crater, when in reality the mouth of the summit is much larger. The boiler isa gap that appears on the ground when the magmatic chamber has released all its content . When it empties, there is a huge hole that collapses because the earth’s crust loses support, drawing a natural depression that surrounds the mountain and whose circumference can be so wide that it is only visible to the bird’s eye. 8. Crater
The lava comes out of the crater, the hole that has cracked the top of the mountain. Formed millions of years ago by the internal explosions of the mountain that cracked the end of the chimney, the crater is, of all the parts of a volcano, the one that gives it its recognizable appearance. 9. Lava Some volcanologists consider that lava should not be included as one of the parts of a volcano per se. On the other hand, others do, because they think that it is what defines the existence of the volcano, even if it is material that it expels.
In short, lava is the name given to the magma that has accumulated underground when it erupts . The difference is that, as it advances through the chimney and ends up coming out, this mass of molten rock changes its original composition, as it does so accompanied by toxic fumes and debris. 4 types of volcano according to their eruption
Considering the way to get rid of its content, we can distinguish 4 types of volcano on the planet. These are its main characteristics:
The 4 types of volcano that exist, according to the form. | Image from: Edu.cat 1. Strombolian
Unlike other types of volcano, the strombolians belch denser lava and accumulate so many gases under the ground that the pressure can cause underground bursts.
When it is expelled, due to its compactness, the lava descends slowly down the slope, but it stays around the crater as it does not flow enough. As it cools, it hardens and coats the volcano’s profile with a new layer of rock. 2. Hawaiian
For their part, Hawaiian volcanoes do not generate as many gases, so their interior activity is not as violent. Therefore, the lava is much more fluid and can be released in rivers that go down the slope without major complications , extending beyond the slopes of the volcano. 3. Fighting
In these types of volcanoes, the lava that comes out is very pasty. If it can see the light, it moves slowly but inexorably through the chimney, producing a large amount of poisonous gases as it goes. However, the high density reached by the lava can plug the outlet , causing these emissions to open new pathways along the earth’s surface, making the air in the area unbreathable. 4. Vesuviano
Named after the terrible volcano that buried the inhabitants of Pompeii and Herculaneum under a blanket of ashes, the Vesuvians store an enormous amount of gases that explode as ash clouds. When bursting through the air, it rains the thrown ashes and sediments. The lava, for its part, is of such viscosity that it ends up solidifying quite quickly, although it generates internal gases that arise from the flowing lava rivers.
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