We have had to live at a time when in some areas of the planet basic human rights are being trampled on with total impunity, so it is worth remembering that these guarantees are mandatory for the governments and authorities of all countries, to ensure the welfare of its citizens.
But, do we know exactly which are the human rights that are undeniable to every person ? Let’s see what they are about.
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1. What are fundamental human rights
? 2. What do these rights have in common?
3. The 30 fundamental human rights.
What are fundamental human
rights? “Rights” are understood as those precepts common to people and that appeal to concepts such as ‘justice’ or ‘order’, which are what give it meaning. The fundamental purpose of rights is to manage relationships in any society so that there are no imbalances and injustices. To make it possible, its application and administration by the public authorities is required.
As far as Human Rights are concerned, it is a series of provisions shared with all the people on the planet, regardless of factors such as race, sex, nationality, language or religion of each individual.
What do these basic rights of the human being have in common?
To begin with, human rights are universal, which means that they are enjoyed by any person, regardless of their ideas and actions (although some may be limited if they violate the Law and so dictate a law). court ruling ). In addition, they are innate, that is, they are enjoyed from the moment one arrives in the world. Keeping these essential features clear, all human rights are also characterized by the following:
a) Obliged compliance
Each state must guarantee and protect these rights. In case of failure, the citizens will be able to demand that the government of their country resume the responsibility that the rulers have towards the citizenry.
b) Either all or none
Mention also that human rights are connected to each other. Depriving or denying one would cause a chain reaction that would destabilize the enjoyment of the others.
c) No one is worth more than anyone
Because of their innate and common character to all human beings, they make everyone equal as soon as they are born.
Last but not least: Human Rights are inviolable. To attack or endanger one of these essential guarantees is to attack our human condition. In the same way, they cannot be exchanged or given up either.
Universal Human Rights
These are the rights that yes or yes they can never deny us, because they would be stripping us of our condition as a person. All of them are included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (signed in 1948) , which urges all countries to respect and protect them:
1. Dignity and equal rights from birth
The dignity of the human being is an indivisible condition , together with equality in terms of these universal rights.
2. There is no distinction to enjoy human rights
No one is exempt from making use of the rights and freedoms that are granted. You can never discriminate for reasons of race, skin color, sex, religion, language, origin, political ideology or socioeconomic status .
3. Life, liberty, security
The right to life is granted as soon as one is born, as well as the right to liberty and security of one’s own person.
Despite being protected, the right to life has become one of the most controversial topics of debate in recent years, confronting two opposing positions, that of abortionists and anti-abortionists. After all, when should the fetus in gestation be considered a human being
,Should the fetus be protected over the mother’s will or is abortion murder?
Many doubts raised for such a delicate subject.
4. Slavery is prohibited
A human being cannot be enslaved or forced into servitude.
When it was established, the signers of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights were in charge of making sure that slavery was prohibited in any form of expression that curtails one or more of the basic freedoms.
5. A human being cannot be tortured or receive humiliating treatment Physical
punishment is prohibited, as well as humiliating treatment or treatment that denigrates the person.
6. Recognition of legal personality
Every human being has the right, in his relationship with the institutions, to the recognition of his legal personality. This procedure is the one that takes for granted the existence of the physical personality of the individual , since without it it is as if the person did not exist.
7. All human beings are equal before the law
As we said before, one of the fundamental human rights is that no one can be treated differently before the law, so it follows that everyone has the right not to be discriminated against and to protect themselves herself if she feels that way.
8. Right to file an appeal before the courts
Anyone can receive the protection of the courts and the law in the event of acts orprovisions that violate any of your rights.
Every person has the right to an effective remedy before the competent national courts, which protects him against acts that violate his fundamental rights recognized by the constitution of his country or by law.
9. Right not to be detained without reason
An arrest warrant must be motivated, it cannot be applied randomly ; as well as prison or exile measures. However, we must not lose sight of the fact that none of the human rights set forth here may be contravened in any way.
10. Right to be heard before an independent court
When you have to defend your rights and obligations before a court, conditions of full equality must be ensuredso that the person can be heard by an impartial tribunal and judge.
11. Presumption of innocence
The presumption of innocence is guaranteed until the guilt of the accused is proven in a public trial, always safeguarding his defense and never formally questioning it. No one can ever be convicted for actions or omissions that were not classified as criminal acts when they were committed; nor may a worse penalty be imposed than the one that would have been applied at the time of committing the crime.
This point of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is one of the most controversial, since it represents one of the basic pillars to guarantee the fair trial of those accused of the most serious crimes; something that many sectors of public opinion do not fully share.
12. Right to privacy
A person can preserve his identity and his private life, as well as that of his family, home or correspondence . In addition, it will be protected by law in the event that any of these aspects is violated
. 13. Free movement and residence
The right to free movement throughout the national territory and to establish residence in any part of the same State is guaranteed. Exits from the country are contemplated in any case, as well as returns.
14. Right of asylum
Every human being can apply for asylum and enjoy it in case of persecution. The law will not apply if there is a judicial resolution for crimes committed.
15. Right to nationality
Every person has the right to acquire nationality and to enjoy the privileges that this entails . Likewise, you can never be denied your will to want to change it (justifiably) or to request dual nationality.
16. Right to marry
Once the legal age for marriage has been reached, both men and women have the right (but not an ‘obligation’) to marry, without considering any restrictions for reasons of race, nationality or religion.A marriage will be considered valid if both involved do so without pressure and give their free consent . Be that as it may, the spouses and the resulting family will be protected by the State from the moment of the marriage.
This section of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights has special importance, completely ignored by many Eastern countries where marriages are still contracted for convenience or underage girls are forced to marry men much older than them.
17. Right to individual property
Any human being has the right to have individual and collective property, something that cannot be taken away without reason or randomly.
18. Freedom of thought, conscience and religion
These three freedoms contemplate the possibility of changing one’s religion or belief; to which is added the freedom to profess religious faith individually or collectively, in public or private.
The right to think freely is for many one of the most basic and fundamental. | Image from: Unsplash.
19. Freedom of opinion and freedom of expression
Among the human rights that best represent our condition as free, are those that allow us to express ourselves without being bothered, despised or censored by opinions or our own thoughts. In addition, this section emphasizes that thoughts and ideologies can be spread,provided that they do not violate any of the principles set forth here, through any means of communication .
20. Right to free assembly and association
As long as it is peaceful, people have the freedom to meet and associate ; although it is not mandatory to join any association.
21. Right to say the government of the country
Anyone can participate in the elections of the government of their country , choosing the representatives they want or participating directly in the political race.
Equal access to the public function of a territory will also be ensured.
Elections are the expression of the will of the people with respect to authority and will be held periodically through universal, equal suffrage and through the unrestricted secret ballot. The right to active or passive suffrage is one of the human rights whose absence is typical in those states of authoritarian government.
22. Right to a good social security Whoever
enjoys the privileges of living in society has the right to benefit from an optimal social security system, which must be sustained thanks to the public expenses of the citizens, according to their economic capacity and based on to the principles of equality and progressiveness. In no case, this expense will have a confiscatory character.
23. Access to work
Access to work is a right, as well as the free choice of it. In any case, said access will be carried out in equitable circumstances and those who are unemployed must be protected.
Carrying out a job grants the right to receive a salary in exchange , without distinction towards the worker.
24. Right to rest
As well as the right to work, the right to enjoy free time and scheduled periodic vacations is also contemplated.
25. Have a standard of living that ensures personal well-being
Every human being has the right to enjoy a standard of living that allows him and his family good health and well-being. What
Ensuring compliance with minimum requirements, such as clothing, decent housing, adequate medical assistance and good social services.
In the same way, the coverage of the person who is unemployed or sick will be ensured; as well as in cases of disability, widowhood or old age, among others.
Children, born in or out of wedlock, must be covered by social protection.
26. Access to education
Education is a right. As for the elementary, it must be free and compulsory . Vocational training must be available to everyone, as well as access to higher education; always according to their own merits.
The purpose of education is the development of the person to strengthen respect for human rights (own and others), as well as for fundamental freedoms and to ensure tolerance and friendship between nations, ethnic and religious groups, in order to preserve the peace. Ultimately, parents have the power to choose what kind of education they want their children to receive .
27. Participation in culture
Being able to take part in the cultural activities offered by the community is another advantage of being part of it , as well as enjoying the different artistic expressions or scientific progress. In the same way, protection will be ensured for scientific, literary or artistic productions and their authors.
28. Right to have these rights made clear
It makes no sense to promise the enjoyment of human rights if these are not reflected in any way. A social and international order must be established that makes it possible to make effective all the prerogatives contemplated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Not everything will be privileges. Belonging to a community also requires the fulfillment of obligations, although without having to give up their own freedom and personality. However, these two aspects will be limited as determined by law, which will act as safe conduct for the rights and freedoms of other people. Thus, none of these may be exercised if they undermine the objectives of the United Nations.
30. No to free interpretation
None of the principles contemplated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights can be freely interpreted or distorted at will. Each of these 30 principles has a reason for being and must be applied as stated.
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- Official page of the Declaration.
- Information on health and human rights according to the World Health Organization.
- Information and frequently asked questions about Human Rights at Amnesty International.