They say that it is a problem of the 21st century, but bullying or bullying has always existed in the classroom. This form of harassment takes many forms that are not always noticeable and has very serious consequences, both physical and psychological, for those who suffer from it. We analyze what it is and the different types of bullying or bullying that exist.

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What is bullying
School harassment, also known by its English form “bullying”, consists of any expression of physical, verbal or sexual violence in the school environment . This abuse occurs in a methodical and systematic way (continued over time), so that the victim ends up adopting a position of submission with respect to the aggressor.
As in other types of abuse, the aggressor is motivated by the feeling of power and belittles the victim, ending up suffering a series of psychological and physical consequences . In this sense, the most common type of bullying is emotional, according to several studies.
Some of the symptoms that the minor is suffering from bullying are:lack of motivation in school, nervousness, introversion or poor school results . Most minors hide or avoid talking about this type of situation, either out of embarrassment or fear of the parents’ reaction (rather the fear that they will not give an adequate response). That is why it is important to detect bullying early.
In the most extreme cases, the harshness of the situation, added to the development of hypothetical thinking by the adolescent, can lead to suicidal thoughts . In Spain alone, the ANAR Foundation assists more than 1,170 young people with problems each year, and there are many cases of suicide due to bullying.
School bullying tends to cause problems in the socialization of the minorwhen it has reached maturity. This is due to a noticeable drop in self-esteem and an increased fear of rejection.

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The 4 types of billying or bullying
We can talk about several types of bullying, although all of them cause a notable reduction in the quality of life of the student.

1. Physical
This type of school abuse can be easily identified and allows an immediate response by educators, including physical attacks such as kicks, punches or attacks with objects. It usually leaves marks on the body of the victim , who may also frequently complain of pain in the head or stomach.

It occurs more frequently in childhood , so it should serve to identify those children who may develop aggressive behavior in the future.

2. Oral
One of the most common abuses consists of uttering insults and all kinds of threats to the victim . These put-downs take the form of jokes about the minor’s physique, sexuality, race, or social status. Unfortunately, many educators don’t consider it that important.
However, the consequences of verbal harassment can be worse than those of physical abuse, and that is that there is a drastic loss of self-esteem . Those who suffer from it are moody, irritable or absent.

3. Psychological
Also called relational bullying, it is perhaps the most complex case of those that concern us. The goal is for the victim to stop being part of the group or for her to feel excluded from a group.either inside or outside the school.
We can detect this type of bullying if the child suddenly stops being part of a group of friends. In addition, mood swings or, as in the previous case, loss of self-esteem are frequent.
In the current social context, psychological bullying can be transferred outside the school through social networks and new forms of communication . This is what is known as cyberbullying.

4. Sexual
The last form of bullying has to do with the gender of the victim and the feeling of superiority on the part of the aggressor, usually a man. It is characterized by macho comments and intimate touching .
Similarly, it can cause serious psychological problems for those who suffer from it. In general, the victim will avoid bullying situations by not attending school, thus avoiding the bully.

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What about the harasser?
Some of the questions that parents and teachers ask the most are the following. What encourages the aggressor to commit bullying
? How can it be stopped?
The answer is not simple, since it depends on many factors. As a general rule, stalkers tend to be minors with low self-esteem or low expectations for the future . This may be caused by a fragmented (or inappropriate) family environment, by unexpressed personal trauma, or by lack of attention.
Bullies will always seek the support of other children or young people in their environment, forming a group in which they feel strong and unpunished. Therefore, more than the aggressor,we must focus our attention on the passivity or permissiveness of the other students, making them see that their behavior is causing enormous damage to someone.
In this sense, it is important that they develop moral understanding and empathy, so that they put themselves in the shoes of the victim and stop supporting the harasser.

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