Plants are living beings that synthesize their own food through photosynthesis. Thanks to chlorophyll, which provides that green color so characteristic of plants and vegetables, they capture solar energy and transform it into oxygen. In addition, they are vital for the existence and continuity of many plant species in the world.
Plants are living beings made up of several parts, where each of them performs a specific function according to its structure. Plants can perform all their functions to survive without the need for displacement . They present a natural pigment known as chlorophyll and that is the cause of the green color of plants.
Chlorophyll is responsible forcapture sunlight to synthesize chemicals necessary for plant life. This process is called photosynthesis and is the basis of these living beings, which synthesize their own food.
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1. The root
The root is the organ that is responsible for fixing the plant to the ground, so that it does not fall or lie down. In addition to its anatomical function of support, the roots are responsible for absorbing the water and mineral salts necessary to produce the nutrients necessary for its survival.
- Neck : is the part located at the level of the surface of the substrate. It is the area that separates the stem from the root.
- Main root : also called body, it is the one that is underground and from which the secondary roots come out.
- Absorbent hairs : it is the area where the water with the nutrients penetrates to provide food to the plant.
- Cap : it is the part that is responsible for protecting the root growth zone. It has the shape of a cap and is located at the end of the main root.
- Fixation : fixes the plant to the ground.
- Absorption : soil absorbs mineral salts and water.
- Driving : drives the raw sap from the ground to the stem.
- Reserve : stores reserve food substances.
2. The stem
The stem is the organ of the plant that grows in the opposite direction to the root. It is in charge of transporting the sap, the water and the nutrients absorbed in the root , to the rest of the parts of the plant. It also performs the function of maintaining the stability of the plant. In addition, it is responsible for the plant reaching the height necessary to receive sunlight.
Depending on the characteristics of the stem, it can be classified as herbaceous or woody. Herbaceous stems are smooth, green, and have little woody tissue . They are plants that usually die after a year and do not usually reach two meters in height. The vegetables that present this type of stems are: flowers, vegetables, vegetables, house plants and perennial plants.
In contrast, the woody stems do not die and survive the cold winters . It is a type of hard, thick, woody stem and can reach several meters in height. The plants that have this type of stem are: trees and shrubs.
- Neck : is the part that joins the root.
- Knot : This is where the leaves and branches come together.
- Buds : give rise to the branches and is where the stem grows.
- Support the other parts of the plant, such as branches, leaves and fruits.
- Transport chemicals and nutrients to the rest of the plant.
- Extend the vegetable until it reaches sunlight.
3. The leaf
The leaves are the organ of the plant that has a laminar shape and is normally green, due to the presence of chlorophyll. They appear at the nodes of the stems and branches. It is one of the most important organs of the plant , since thanks to the chlorophyll they can absorb sunlight and convert carbon dioxide into oxygen.
parts of a leaf
- Blade : is the wide and flat part of the leaf. It has two faces: the beam, which is the upper part of the leaf, and the underside, which is the part that is down.
- Petiole : is the filament that joins the leaf to the stem. It has the shape of a corner and is where the conductive vessels pass. There are leaves that do not have a petiole and are called sessile.
- Nerves : they are wrinkles or channels that run through the limbus. They are the conductive vessels that run along the surface of the leaf.
- Sheath : it is a dilation of the petiole or limb that surrounds the stem.
- Photosynthesis : consists of absorbing carbon dioxide, by capturing sunlight and transforming it and expelling it as oxygen. This process is vital for the life of plants since thanks to it they can synthesize their own food.
- Respiration : the leaves are the lungs of the plant, they absorb oxygen and expel carbon dioxide. This process is normally done at night.
- Transpiration : the leaves expel water in the form of vapor through the stomata. The result is the presence of small droplets on the surface of the leaves.
4. The flower
Flowers are the reproductive organ of plants . They play a very important role in the manufacture of seeds and are the most conspicuous part of the species. They appear when the plant is mature and environmental conditions are favorable. They are vital for the existence and propagation of vegetables and vegetables on Earth.
- Calyx : are the small green leaves that are on the outside of the flower. Its function is to protect the flower when it is still a bud.
- Corolla : formed by brightly colored petals to attract insects and carry out pollination.
- Pistil : is the female organ of the flower. It is composed of the ovary, style, and stigma.
- Stamens : they are filaments that are around the stigma. They are the male organ of the flower. It has a sac, called an anther, at the top, which is where pollen is produced when the flower matures.
- Pollination : is the movement of pollen from the stamen to the pistil. This pollination can be carried out directly, when the stigma receives pollen from the same flower, or indirectly, when the pollen from one flower ends up on the stigmas of another, by means of insects or by the wind. Pollination refers to the process of plant reproduction.
- Fertilization : is when the male sex cell unites with the female sex cell. The fertilized ovule becomes a seed and the ovary becomes a fruit.
5. The fruit
The fruits are the fertilized, transformed and mature ovary of the plant. It is in charge of protecting the seeds and ensuring their dispersion . In addition, they serve as food for many living beings.
- Pericarp : is created with the transformation of the walls of the ovary. It is made up of three layers:
- Endocarp: outer layer that surrounds the fruit. It is the shell of the fruit, the outer layer.
- Mesocarp: Edible part of the fruit. It is the middle layer of the fruit.
- Epicarp: Part that surrounds the seed. It is the inner layer of the fruit.
- Seed : is the part of the fruit that is located and protected by the endocarp. It is the organ responsible for creating a new flowering plant. It is created when the fertilized egg transforms. It is made up of three parts:
- Contains and protects the seeds during their development.
- It is part of the process of dispersing the seeds once they are ripe.
- Attract animals so that they favor dispersal.
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