For decades the “typical” family structure has been changing and evolving. The truth is that today very few families resemble the classic idea of ​​family proposed by the patriarchal societies of the 19th and 20th centuries.
In this article we are going to discover the main types of families that exist. All have always been present in the world, but now more than ever they have increased their frequency, making the normative not so easy to find.

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The 15 types of families
We must remember that for practical purposes there are as many types of families as there are families in the world. In fact, the very definition of family is ambiguous and there is not much consensus on it, where to put the limit?
On the other hand, we have chosen to describe the types of families according to the Eskimo system , where only the sexes and generations, in addition to direct or collateral descent. There are other more complex ones such as the Sudanese, where no two relatives have the same term; or the crow, where patrilineage is distinguished from matrilineage (among many other things).
To give other examples, in languages ​​such as Chinese, Japanese or Hungarian, the terms of the kinship system depend on age, far beyond “older brother” or “younger brother”.

1. Consanguineous family
Our first type of family includes all those people who share the same genetic origin. The big question is where to put the limit, what percentage of genetic similarity to establish as a “family”, since all humans share part of our genes.

2. Political
family The political family refers to the subgroup formed by the consanguineous family of the boyfriend/girlfriend or husband/wife.

3. Large family
The concept of a large family can vary quite a bit depending on the legislation of each country, since this type of family usually has some social privileges, such as financial aid.
As a general rule, it is established that when the parents (or only one of them, depending on the type of family) has/have 3 or more sons or daughters , it is considered a large family. Regardless of whether the children are common or not.

4. Same-sex family
There are two subtypes within this family category. Homoparental families made up of two men and those made up of two women. In each case, there are different ways in which parents can have children. Whether through adoption, surrogate motherhood, or other methods.

5. Single-parent family
These are all those families made up of a single parent or carer. These families usually have more difficulties because the care that takes care of the offspring has too many work and family burdens. In general, he tends to lean (if he can) on the rest of the family .

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6. Heteroparental family
It is all that family composed, unlike the previous one, by a man and a woman. It is the type of family that is defended from conservative perspectives.

7. Nuclear family
Refers to the smallest “nucleus”. That is, the concept of family can be reduced to the minimum expression. Some types of nuclear families are those already seen as heteroparental family and homoparental family.
In other words, nuclear families are those that name their parents and their children , without taking into account grandparents, uncles, etc.

8. Composite family
This type of families arise as the combination (or composition) of several nuclear families. The normal thing is that they arise after a breakup. It is common to find children with stepbrothers, stepfathers, etc.

9. Family of separated parents
Although the parents separate, in some way and depending on many variables, the family remains such, since the children continue to have, in some cases, a father or a mother (in the event that it is heteroparental) .
In these cases, the parents should reach a consensus on the upbringing of the children.

10. Families without descendants
There are several degrees. Normally we talk about families without children. In more general cases, it is the whole family that has no offspring. Namely,none of the children of those who would be, grandparents, has had offspring.

11. Adoptive family
Increasingly common in many Western countries. Describes those families that have decided to adopt one or several children. Sometimes because of the impossibility of procreating, other times because they want to help the most unfortunate children.

12. Foster family
These families usually represent a temporary “refuge” for those children without parents . They are in charge of caring for and giving a home to the children until they are definitively adopted by an adoptive family.

13. Royal Family
In countries where monarchical systems exist, this type of family can still be found in the XXI century.

14. Punalua family
It is one of the most interesting and unknown families. In some parts of the world, such as Polynesia, they usually occur.
It consists of a type of family in which the sons of one marry the daughters of another . In such a way that all the brothers (or sisters) have the same political family.

15. Toxic family
Beyond all the families discussed, a term that is widely used today is “toxic family.” As always, it is difficult to establish the limit, but defining it vaguely, a toxic family is one that, due to its dynamics and relationships, psychologically and/or physically damages its members , making psychological disorders frequent.