Communication is one of the main characteristics of the human being. In this article we are going to discover the types of communication that exist, to give an easy-to-understand definition and to explain their features.
Among all the ways of communicating, the human being, due to how he has evolved, has developed a large number of types of communication that are worth knowing, many of them shared with the rest of the animals. Only in this way can they be enhanced and improved on a day-to-day basis.
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Types of communication
For a better understanding of all the types and forms of communication, we have classified them into different subgroups, since they make up several categories that are easily distinguishable from one another.
As expected, most types are not mutually exclusive and can occur at the same time.
According to the number of people involved
The first classification that we will make within the types of communication is depending on the number of people who are involved in the process.
1. Dual or interindividual
communication It is the type of classic communication where two people interact and exchange information and emotions.
2. Group or Collective Communication
It is all that type of communication in which more than 2 people intervene . In the next subcategory we will see some types that can be included within this.
3. Intrapersonal communication It
would be similar or equivalent to the soliloquy. It is all that communication that oneself has with his thoughts, emotions and sensations. It largely shapes the way we perceive and process the world.
Types of communication according to the recipient
In this category we could include the same case of intrapersonal, since the recipient is oneself. Anyway, it would be to repeat the definition. In addition, we find the following types of communication depending on who it is intended for.
4. Intragroup communication
Whenever there are more than two people, it is what happens within the same group. It can be a group of work, friends, etc.
5. Intergroup communication
This type of communication appears between groups. That is, for it to happen, at least two groups (politicians, for example) are needed . Between them, there is an exchange of information.
6. Communication from the individual to the group
The type of individual-group communication is the one that appears, for example, in political speeches or in the classroom. One person speaks and the rest listen. Information goes from one person to two or more than two.
7. Communication from the group to the individual
It is the reverse of what we have just seen. In this type of communication,Several people send information to a single subject.
8. Mass communication
It can include both one issuer and several, and they are always intended for a large group of people , who, not being defined by similar characteristics, could not be called a group as such.
A clear example of this type of communication is that of television advertising. Anyone can see the same commercial.
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Verbal or non-verbal communication
One of the classic distinctions within the types of communication, surely you already knew it.
Includes all that production in which there are signs that represent ideas or states. That is, there is a background structure that is not arbitrary, although the symbol-meaning association can be.
Despite what is thought, there are more than two types (oral and written) , since for example we find the morse, or smoke signals among many others.
Unlike the previous one, it does not have a syntactic structure and there is no hierarchy between the elements. Body communication, kinesics, gestures, proxemics, cronemics, facial expressions, paralanguage (tone of voice, speed, etc.) or eye contact are examples of it.
According to the sensory channel
It depends on the sensory route you use. In order for it to occur, the organism in question must have the necessary biological characteristics; otherwise, the type of communication will not be possible.
11. Visual Communication
Requires a visuoperceptive system for this type of communication to occur. The vast majority of evolved animals (wrongly called) have it.
12. Auditory communication
The information is received through the ear for further processing. From oral language to music are ways to use this type of communication.
13. Tactile or haptic communication
It is the one that is perceived through the skin (in humans) or any tissue that warns of pressure, temperature, etc.
14. Olfactory communication
This type of communication requires an olfactory channel that receives the stimuli. It can give us information thanks to, for example, the pheromones that the other person gives off.
15. Gustatory communication
Finally, regarding the forms of communication depending on the channel, we have the gustatory communication.
Types of communication according to the medium
The characteristics of the medium influence the different types of communication between the sender and the receiver. We have selected some of the most relevant.
16. Telephone communication
Since the invention of the telephone, increasingly widespread, it is one of the main ways of communicating at a distance .
17. Sexual communication
This type of communication is essential to have a full sexual life with your partner (or partners).
18. Emotional communication
It is in which subjective emotions prevail over facts or purely rational information, which would be another type of communication.
19. Virtual communication
On the rise, it represents one of the revolutions at the level of communication for the human being.
20. Television communication
Little by little it is losing strength in our society, which is already looking for other types of communication. The big problem,is that it is a unidirectional communication (it always goes from the television to the viewer).
communication If television communication was losing out, this type of communication is losing even more followers , largely due to the lack of visual stimuli that produces so much hooking in the receiver.
22. Cinematographic communication
Similar to television but with certain nuances. In this type of communication the receiver is more selective and has a greater relationship with the message. It also occurs in more typified contexts (cinemas, specific rooms, etc.).
23. Organizational communication
The proper functioning and maintenance of an organization or a company depends on it.
According to the objective or goal
Depending on the final destination, we find the following types of communication.
24. Advertising communication
Powered especially by television , this form of communication is especially persuasive and unidirectional.
25. Journalistic communication
Based mainly on the facts (rational), is to inform the recipient. It is also almost entirely unidirectional.
26. Informative communication
In which we could find the two previous ones, its objective is to give information and data to a recipient who may or may not be looking for them.
27. Political communication
Largely persuasive and informative, it is the one available to leaders to gain visibility and support. It goes from an individual to a group and is also usually unidirectional.
28. Persuasive communication
It is present in almost all types of communication that we have talked about, since in some way, we all want to influence the beliefs and emotions of the other person. Anyway, purely persuasive communication even tries to manipulate the receiver.
According to the directionality
Although we know that in all types of communications there is a sender and a receiver (at least, and may even be the same), these characteristics are highly relevant and add great information.
A person sends messages to an audience. It can be a politician or a monologist (pun intended).
It has two people (in the case of speaking of humans), and both are transmitters and receivers at the same time. This type of communication in turn allows greater intimacy and the creation of unique symbols that only both components understand.
31. Vertical communication
In a group (company, social, friends…) in which there is a hierarchy, vertical communication is what happens between members of different strata. From a boss to an employee, from the most popular friend to another less popular, etc.
32. Horizontal communication
Unlike the previous form of communication, this one takes place within the same “level”. That is, between equals. For example, between two colleagues who hold the same positions in the company , or between friends who are equally popular.
33. Transversal communication
It is a somewhat more complex type of communication since it depends on the existence of hierarchical levels and thematic sections.
For example, in a company with three levels of hierarchy (head, sub-heads and employees) and with several topics (economic team and human resources team), is the communication that would exist between the sub-heads of the economics team with the employees of the human resources (although obviously there are more combinations).
This type of communication greatly encourages the emergence of new ideas and the solving of problems in ingenious ways.
34. Upward communication
It happens when the information goes from a lower hierarchical level to a higher one. For example, from employees to bosses.
35. Downward communication
It is the opposite case, to the previously mentioned. It is more frequent and it is where we find, for example, the day-to-day orders in any company .
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